Plastic is a concept used to describe synthetic and semi-synthetic objects. It is named after the material placed in the mold during the production takes the shape of the mold. The first semi-synthetic plastic was discovered in 1848 by an accident by the Swedish chemist Christian Fredrick Schoenbein (1799-1868). While boiling sulfuric and nitric acid mixture in the laboratory, Schoenbein was poured to the floor and wiped the spilled mixture with cotton apron. He rinsed his apron with water and hung it on the stove to dry. After the apron dried, it burned and burned. With this, nitrocellulose was discovered.
The first plastic invention was made by Alexander Parkes in Birmingham, England, under the name ’Parkesin ı, a mixture of nitrocellulose, camphor and alcohol. This invention of Parkes was exhibited at the Great International Fair in 1862. The invention of Alexander Parkes, which received great attention due to the high cost of rubber, won the bronze medal.
Parkesine CO., Founded in 1866 by Parkes in London, is engaged in the production of plastics. The company started with. The production of numerous items such as card box, medal, button, comb, penholder, knife handle has become both less costly and of higher quality. In addition, plastic door handles and mirrors were exhibited at the Great International Fair in 1862.
Invention of Celluloid Plastic
The next step in the invention of plastic took place in the United States in the 19th century. The billiards, which were very popular in the US in the 19th century, were made of ivory, which led to the killing of thousands of elephants. Animal rights defenders were also opposed to the ivory billiard balls, which were very costly for the producers.
John Wesley Hyatt tried to make a flexible but strong billiard ball, which he found in his shop. However, noticing that the balls are not durable enough, Hyatt made the plastic he invented more durable. On June 15, 1869, Wesley gave the name “celluloid” to the plastic he invented, skating in New York as the inventor of celluloid. However, this plastic will then be used for making billiard balls, not flexible films and photographs.
Invention of Bakelite Plastic
Synthetic bakelite plastic, found in history in 1907 by Leo Baekeland in New York. Baekeland, which provides pressure and temperature control apparatus, obtained completely synthetic resin from this apparatus. This resin, like old plastic materials, was heated by molding in a new shape. However, after cooling the bakelite could retain its shape indefinitely. Bakelite soon became the standard material in every field of industry. Today, plastic is widely used.