immunotherapy is a new dimension of drug treatment in cancer
millions of cancer cells are born in our body every day. There are cells in the human’s own immune system so that they can beat the cancer cells. When the immune system recognizes the cancer cells, it acts immediately and destroys the cell. these cells fight t cells (t lymphocytes) in the immune system. t cells fight against cancer cells, try to destroy it. but thanks to the receptor on cancer cells, t cells bind to their receptors, preventing them from fighting against them. Immunotherapy drugs prevent the binding of t cells and cancer cells by these receptors and enable t cells to perform their functions. The purpose of immunotherapy is to strengthen the immune system, ie the immune system, to allow the body to overcome cancer itself.
What is the difference from chemotherapy?
so far, three types of cancer-related drug treatment has been applied. The first of these (streotaxic in cancer) is the “cytotoxic” chemotherapy treatment that kills cancer cells. secondly, hormone therapy methods used to break the hormone mechanisms in breast and prostate cancers due to hormones. and third, targeted treatment, which has been used for the last 15 years and has been increasing day by day, the aim of this treatment was to block the mechanisms of cancer development and spread. Immunotherapy is the target immune, ie by strengthening the immune system to ensure that the body’s own cancer. they are different from each other as mechanisms. chemotherapy kills cells, immunotherapy strengthens the immune system.
different side effects. side effects such as hair loss, low blood, nausea and vomiting seen in chemotherapy are not seen in immunotherapy. Immunotherapy side effects are mostly caused by stimulation of the immune system.
In order to perform chemotherapy, patient’s performance should be good and body functions should be in place. both the disease and the problems associated with chemotherapy should not harm the patient. Immunotherapy is also effective in patients with poor performance. very weak, even in patients who can not be removed. even in them can be effective.
How it is made?
immunotherapy drugs, such as chemotherapy is administered intravenously through the serum. but it is more comfortable than chemotherapy. does not create a significant problem when applying.
Who can be used?
Immunotherapy drugs are not currently used in early disease return. is used in patients who have spread, metastasized. It can be used in patients in stage 4. but for the results to be good, the patient must be in the early stage of the 4th stage. why I asked the 4th stage question too. I thought that the combination of different treatments can give very good results by strengthening the immune system in the earlier stages. It was ridiculous to expect the last universe. I thought it could be used in the early stages after surgery. I thought maybe the combination with chemotherapy might be good. (my personal opinion only) until I find out why the 4th universe is expected. I will touch on that in the future.
Which cancers can be used?
it is being tested and promising in many types of cancer. but today it is the most important drug of cancers that is malignant melonom. chemotherapy has almost no effect on malignant melonom, whereas immunotherapy is very effective. It is used as a first choice in non – small cell lung cancer in progressive disease after chemotherapy. that is, chemotherapy is applied first, if the disease progresses, immunotherapy drugs are given as a second choice. The third use area is kidney cancer. where immunotherapy is used in the second choice when targeted drugs fail. the fourth is used in lymph cancer (hodgkin’s disease).
what other cancers is being considered?
promising for bowel, bladder, stomach and breast cancer. research stage, not yet used.
What kind of side effects can make?
Immunotherapy is making side effects related to the immune system. These may be a number of symptoms in the skin, intestinal diarrhea. inflammation in the lung (pneumonia without germs) may have effects on the hormone system. for example, it may act on the thyroid gland, causing it to function slowly or rapidly. adrenal gland failure. Pituitary gland insufficiency can be seen. weakness, anorexia. Side effects should be well known and patients should be followed closely. therefore, medical oncologists applying immunotherapy should know when to discontinue the drug when these side effects occur, when to continue, and take precautions. not only medical oncologists, but physicians in other branches such as chest diseases, endocrinology, gastroenterology should know how to intervene if any side effects occur. for example, using cortisone can save lives if side effects occur. therefore, the physician needs to know when to use cortisone.
that is why it may be preferred in the 4th phase. Many side effects